ارایه یک تعریف شبکه‌ای از صنایع دستی 

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری پژوهش و تاریخ هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه پژوهش و تاریخ هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران، نویسنده مسئول.

3 استاد گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهران، ایران.

10.22051/jjh.2023.44307.2007

چکیده

 
 تغییرات بنیادین در شیوه‌های ارتباطی و محیط­های کسب­و­کار در­پی تحولات فناورانه عصر حاضر صنایع‌دستی را با چالش­های جدیدی در عرصه طراحی، تولید و عرضه مواجهه ساخته است. تعاریف و رویکردهای مرسوم صنایع‌دستی اغلب بر هستی و چیستی تمرکز دارند و با وجود توجه به جنبه­های نوآوری، اقتصادی و کارآفرینی پایدار در مباحثی چون اقتصاد خلاق، صنایع خلاق و توسعه پایدار، هم‌چنان توجه به رویکردهایی هم­راستا با تحولات و روح زمانه لازم و ضروری می­باشد. رویکرد شبکه­ای صنایع‌دستی بر اساس نظریه کنشگر شبکه برونو لاتور با در نظر گرفتن کنش تمامی کنشگران انسانی و غیر­انسانی در شبکه­ای متحد از کنشگران، در­پی دست‌یابی به رویکرد کاربردی است؛ تا بتوان در اخذ استراتژی­هایی به منظور بهره­گیری از مزایا و مقابله با تهدیدهای تحولات فناورانه در راستای حفظ، بهبود و ارتقای صنایع‌دستی به‌کار برد. در راستای رسیدن به تعریفی جامع از رویکرد شبکه­ای صنایع‌دستی بر اساس اجماع نظر 12خبره، ابتدا، دو پرسش‌نامه در طیف پنج‌تایی لیکرت تنظیم گردید. نتایج حاصل از پرسش‌نامه اول، نشان از آن دارد که عاملیت هنرمند صنعت‌گر و تاثیر ابزارها و فناوری­های نوین در فرایند طراحی و تولید صنایع دستی بیش‌ترین اجماع نظر را در گزینه بسیار زیاد دارد؛ هم‌چنین، به جهت تدوین استراتژی­های آینده‌نگرانه بر اهمیت رویکرد شبکه­ای در گزینه بسیار زیاد اجماع نظر دیده می‌شود. طبق نتایج حاصل از پرسش‌نامه دوم، سه کنشگر هنرمند صنعت‌گر، دانش و مهارت تخصصی و عوامل اقتصادی بالاترین میزان عاملیت را از نظر خبرگان دارا می‌باشند. در انتها، تعریف رویکرد شبکه­ای صنایع‌دستی ارایه شده از سوی پژوهشگران در سه دور به قضاوت خبرگان گذاشته شد و پس از اجماع و اشباع نظر خبرگان، تعریف شبکه­ای صنایع‌دستی، مدل مفهومی آن و پیشنهاداتی در خصوص کاربرد آن در عرصه‌های عملی و پژوهشی صنایع‌دستی ارایه گردید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presenting a Network-Based Definition of Handicraft Industries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Rahmanpoor 1
  • Mehdi Keshavarz Afshr 2
  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 3
1 PhD Student of Art Studies & Art History, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Art Studies & Art History, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, Corresponding Author.
3 Professor, Department of IT Management, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
 
Uncertainties of the future and fundamental changes in communication methods and business environments as a result of technological developments of the present era have posed new challenges for the handicraft industry in terms of design, production, and distribution.
Traditional definitions and approaches in the handicraft industry often are focused on the essence and nature of the craft. However, with the increasing emphasis on innovation, economic sustainability, and entrepreneurial aspects in areas such as the creative economy, creative industries, and sustainable development in recent decades, it is still necessary to pay attention to approaches that are aligned with the developments and spirit of the times.
The rapid emergence of technological developments and their effects have questioned the human agency in the viewpoints believing in subject/object duality, and have caused the emergence of theories in the sociology of science and technology studies. Some consider man to be free and consider technology as a tool in his hand and some others consider technology to be intrinsically autonomous, i.e. affects social, cultural, and political equations.
In the meantime, theories formed in the contemporary world deny the characteristic of autonomy of humans and technology and the action or the final product is the result of connecting human and non-human factors in a network. the most important representative of this approach is the actor-network theory.
The present article tries to suspend our familiarity with the assumed structures based on the actor-network theory and then starts with the activists and their actions, further, by examining the relationship between the actors and the negotiations between them, the paper concludes how human and non-humans actors create a network together, and finally, the final product, which is called a black box in actor-network theory, is made.
Therefore, the present research is looking for an answer to this question: How can the network approach of handicrafts be explained based on the actor-network theory, and what solutions are suitable for its application in the practical and research fields of handicrafts?
In the research process, firstly, in the background section, research conducted in the field of handicrafts has been explored based on this theory. Then the actor-network theory is introduced based on Berno Latour's theory and its elements and further, based on this theory, the creation of the final handicraft product in a network consisting of human and non-human actors and how the human agency (artist-artisan) and the links and negotiations within the network have been examined to explain the network approach of handicrafts.
This theory seeks to achieve a practical approach to develop strategies for leveraging advantages and addressing threats posed by technological advancement toward the preservation, improvement, and promotion of the handicraft industry.
In the third part, the classic Delphi research method is presented to reach the consensus of the experts in defining the network approach. In the fourth part of the findings of the research, according to the subject, it means reaching a definition of the network approach of handicrafts, the need of which was felt following the developments of the present era, especially the technological developments. thus 12 experts were selected with the conditions of expertise in the field of handicrafts and knowledge of technological developments affecting handicrafts, as well as the desire and enthusiasm for cooperation and continuity in it.
Before asking the experts for their opinion regarding the definition provided by the researchers, two questionnaires were prepared on the five-point Likert scale to reach a common point of view for judging through similar criteria. the results of the first questionnaire show that the agency of the artisan artist and the impact of new tools and technologies in the process of designing and producing handicrafts have the highest consensus in the very high option, Also, to develop forward-looking strategies, there is a lot of consensus on the importance of a network approach in this option.
 According to the results of the second questionnaire, three actors, artisans, specialized knowledge and skills, and economic factors have the highest level of agency according to the experts. in the end, the definition of the handicraft network approach presented by the researchers was judged by experts in three rounds. and after the consensus and saturation of experts' opinions, the definition of handicraft network was presented. In the fifth part, discussion and conclusion, the practical suggestions of the network approach and its conceptual model are presented.
What is of great importance in the present research in achieving the definition of handicrafts network approach is the reasons and how to apply this approach in different fields of handicrafts which is also the answer to the research question and shows that the practical features of this theory can be used in networking, planning and policy-making. the network approach to handicrafts by providing conditions that can simultaneously involve the actions of human and non-human actors in the network causes the confrontational strategy is not the only option against technological developments. rather, with the arrival of any new phenomenon affecting handicrafts, by creating negotiations and creating links, the action of the new agent should be directed in line with the goals of the network.
Therefore, new developments, especially emerging technologies, are not considered a threat and it is possible to take advantage of its advantages and opportunities by establishing interactive links and taking measures against possible threats. this requires the formation of powerful research networks to recognize and monitor the developments and technologies affecting handicrafts and to provide the data obtained from the research continuously to various networks of designing, producing, and supplying handicrafts.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Network-Actor Theory
  • Bruno Latour
  • Network Approach to Handicraft Industries
  • Definitions of Handicraft Industries
  • Handicraft Actors