نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسی ارشد پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان ، ایران.
2 دانشیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران، نویسنده مسئول.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of the research is to study the structural elements of the Pahlavi emblem and the Republic of China through descriptive-analytical method, based on comparative studies, and content analysis. By means of reflective schemas to determine the extent of the application of symbols and meanings and concepts called to find common themes and ideals or to extract the cultural differences and political covenants of these two countries within a comparative approach in a determined period of time.
Since the two countries of Iran and China have had extensive communication and significant cultural and artistic relations through the Silk Road, and the perceived integration between Buddhist and Islamic arts, the attitude of the two countries on the basis of several thousand years of civilization, in choosing and designing their prominent national emblems in a specific time frame, can be significant and offer important insights.
The question is How and to what extent have these two countries used symbols for the design of national emblems, for the purpose of directing political covenants and moral themes, etc., in the same period of time?
Results: In the present study, it was determined that national emblems are representative image sources of a country that are influenced by its history and culture. In this research, the structure of reflective schemas and meanings of symbols in the emblems of the First Pahlavi and the Republic of China based on the importance of such schemas, have been examined. According to reading of Kant, reflective schemas are extracted from reflection on spatio-temporal dynamism or dynamics of a being, animal, tree, etc. Considering the existing structural similarities between the two emblems, it is possible to compare them.
Both emblems are made of natural elements - heavenly bodies, mountains, plants and animals - and tools; Lion, dragon and Feng Huang as animal elements, oak branch, olive and rice as plant elements, heavenly bodies such as the earth, sky and sun, moon and stars are also depicted in national emblems of Iran and China. Besides these natural elements, sword, crown, axe, Zongi (golden cup) etc. are among the tools incorporated in the designs of these emblems. Therefore, there can be structural similarities between the two.
Although both emblems share similar structural elements, but the Chinese national emblem showcases more ritualistic motifs, more natural and animal elements, and contains allusions to the Chinese astrology by depiction of elements such as fire, water, wood, metal, plant, and earth; the earth in the form of a mountain, rice embodies water etc. Mythological elements and ornaments of the imperial dress can also be seen in the Chinese national emblem. In lion and sun emblem of the first Pahlavi, religious elements are depicted, but compared to the Chinese counterpart, it has less natural, animal and plant elements. The earth is not included in the Iranian emblem. Apart from the sword, which can be a sign of the crescent moon and of course Islam and Shiism, there is no trace of other heavenly bodies. Oak and olive can be considered as symbols of plants and water. The crown is the symbol of the king on the top side of emblem. In the Pahlavi period, the feminine power is not showcased in the design of the emblem.
The study goes on to compare the meanings and concepts in the two symbols. In the sign of lion and sun, for example, the element of lion can be seen as a reference to the power of the kingdom. But the two animal elements, dragon and Feng-Huang, refer to two royal characters, the king and the queen, which show complementary forces of yin and yang that are eternal. Meanwhile, the sun in the lion and sun emblem again, refers to the king, and there are no feminine symbols to compensate as the queen. Also, oak and olive plant branches in Pahlavi's emblem represent concepts such as longevity, unity, security, victory and peace, but the plant element of the Republic of China, which is the rice spike, is a reference to the importance of earth and agriculture in Taoism and rice’s crucial significance in Chinese culture, and the work, effort, toll that goes into the production of rice as the singular most recognized product of China. Although the sword in the sign of the lion and the sun is associated with guarding and protection, it also refers to Shiism and the revered regard for Imam Ali (pbuh) among Muslims. The axe is also associated with the concept of grains and their protection. Also, Zongi, in Chinese symbolism, can carry meanings such as purity, spiritual growth, and is a symbol of the emperor's virtue in loyalty and filial piety. In examining the lion and the sun, several concepts such as resistance and authority, unity, the importance of royalty have been revealed. In the Republic of China’s emblem, the induction of concepts such as the importance of religion, the importance of earth, agriculture and natural elements in accordance with Taoism, unity, blessing and fertility can be detected.
Therefore, it can be concluded that both signs, while referring to numerous material concepts, have also placed religion and moral themes in the center of attention. The lion and sun motifs is a declaration of nationalistic goals such as the importance of the king and the royal position, the importance of religion, ideal concepts such as security, unity, longevity, victory, peace, hope, blessing, guarding and protecting the country. The national emblem of the Republic of China also shows similar messages as the emblem of the lion and the sun, although more, which include the special position of the king and queen, the importance of opposing yet complementary forces, the sacred position of Taoism, and ideal concepts such as authority, blessing, immortality, unity, happiness, longevity. Both emblems have showcased cosmic symbols. Both bring to life the concepts, topics of morality or religious principles. The emblem of the Republic of China, is inspired from the old decorations of the traditional imperial dress, which in turn depicted the emperor as the symbol of the son of the sky, and referred to the teachings of Confucius and his twelve moral commandments that the emperor embodied in order to be a just ruler. Therefore the emblem of Republic of China implies that a good prosperous country with instructive policies is achieved only through an authority that follows moral codes as its principle policy. In first Pahlavi’s national emblem, such moral symbols are not much showcased, but mostly concepts such as chivalry, bravery, and good fortune and good omens are emphasized, with a focus on Imam Ali (pbuh) as the embodiment of morality and courage.