نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسی ارشد طراحی صنعتی، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران، نویسنده مسئول.
2 استادیار گروه طراحی صنعتی، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
In the past, in rural and urban communities of Iran, a lot of families with generations of carpet weaving as their occupation had almost all members of the family engaged in this profession. Since childhood, children were in touch with carpet and its design, knot and pattern alongside their parents as a pastime besides the main source of income for the household such as farming, etc. At present time, with development of urbanism and increased distance of main centers of carpet production particularly in Tehran you hardly see someone in households engaged in this profession as either an occupation or a pastime. Hence, making the new generation in urban communities familiar with the process of carpet production may make them interested in this art and they even may become motivated to pursue the jobs related to carpet art and industry, thus resulting in a change in common clichés about inferiority of carpet-related jobs, and therefore improve the next generation’s attitude and public opinion towards this important art and industry.
The necessity of improving the social position of carpet weaving as an occupation is undeniable. This goal would not be achieved unless by changing people’s attitude during childhood. In most developed communities, people get familiar with different jobs during childhood. Hence, for the survival of carpet art and industry and familiarity of the new generation in urban communities with this industry, it is important to make children (7-11 years old) familiar with the process of carpet production, its common designs and principles, as psychologists specialized in growth stages believe that childhood is the best period for promoting individual creativity for their future career.
The following goals are considered in this research:
Making children (11-17 years old) familiar with the process of handmade carpet production and designing a method for showing them the process using gamification, regardless of the common tools existing in the market for weaving of the carpet.
The following questions are posed in this research:
What stages are involved in handmade carpet production?
How children (1—17 years old) may become familiar with these stages?
What raw materials, designs, colors and patterns are used in handmade carpets?
How does modern method of gamification reflect the process of handmade carpet production?
The present research is a descriptive- applied research of qualitative type in which double diamond model is used for problem solving. For data collection, observation, monitoring and questionnaires were used. The statistical population of this study consists of 100 7-11 year-old children from 2 schools (one school dedicated to girls and one to boys) in region 2 of Tehran municipality, who were randomly selected and were classified as middle class in terms of financial position, with interests and abilities of the new generation living in urban regions with relative welfare with no background mentality about carpet production and process of carpet weaving, and living far from main centers for carpet production enterprises who showed interest for cooperation and participation in this study. Due to the distribution of statistical population in this region, we tried to classify participants based on their educational grade given time and place considerations of the two schools. According to Cochran formula, totally 100 students, in other words 50 students from each school and 10 students from each educational grade divided by gender were selected for this study with 0.5% margin for error; their behavior was studied and recorded using interview and questionnaire. Finally, the primary sample was provided for them for testing.
For children to learn about handmade carpet production, they need to know about the stages of this process. Below, a summary of this process is described:
Selecting form and dimension; selecting ready to use pattern or designing one; point and color; selecting yarns and pile; dying the fibers; pattern reading; weaving and knotting; complementary stage.
Contrary to the common belief among the publics who think handmade carpet production involves just weaving and knotting, the process takes a significant length of time requiring hard work that sometimes may seem boring, particularly to children. Moreover, learning knotting and weaving carpet may seem unattractive and non-amusing to children. Hence, designers have designed simple, small plastic looms in order to attract children’s interest via gamification using common motifs and patterns used in carpet weaving. Such products are popular more among girls. Since many studies have demonstrated the direct effect of toys on the future career of children, we have tried to include double diamond method in this study that is one of the popular methods in carpet production and provided children with the opportunity to try carpet weaving in a simple and harmless manner fitted to their age which also could be considered amusing. So that children can be engaged in a pleasant challenge in which they combine creativity and joy by completing a pattern through the process of hand-woven carpet and produce modular flooring.
Gamification is a relatively new word but its underlying concepts dates back to ancient ages. The best method for teaching and learning free from coercion and strictness is gamification. The behavioral culture of gamification has always been popular among the publics. It seems that the first case of motivational game aimed behavioral change and teaching tried by individuals could be found in folklore stories particularly in Iran. Story of Hasan The Bald narrates a lazy and self-indulgent boy whose mother tries to motivates him to step out of the house by placing some apples on the path. By this trick, he is motivated to move in order to reach to his favorite fruit, apple.
In this study, we investigated various aspects of discovery in double diamond method and then defined the problem. At this stage, by screening the information obtained in discovery stage, we reached to a suitable solution for teaching the process of handmade carpet production. Based on monitoring results and field observations concerning the process of handmade carpet weaving in line with the goals of this study, general trend of the game, and touch points that must be passed through by user to become familiar with the stages of carpet production, we identified 5 stages involved in designing the final product.
By passing through above described process designed in this toy, children would learn about designing the carpet, converting the design into pattern, reading the pattern (cartoon), selecting the color palette according to the pattern, concept of knots in carpet weaving which are simplified in the toy, and then putting together the T-shaped pieces made of felt on a punched board that resemble knots on the carpet loom. The final flooring with desired pattern and customized design is made by the user. Users can apply various designs and patterns as desired and amuse themselves.
Some of the features of this product that make it attractive include: aesthetics, affordability, user friendliness, diverse patterns, portability, etc. all of which serving the purpose of learning about the process of handmade carpet production via gamification. This product has some disadvantages too: its height relative to the earth surface, the big size of T-shapes pieces compared to knots that reduces delicacy of final product compared to real handmade carpet. Although this flooring is designed for 7-11 years old children, it may be used by people from any age group, as it is a new and innovative product.
As mentioned before, the double diamond method despite other methods is not a linear and steady approach, but each stage complements other stages and covers the defects of other parts in terms of divergence and convergence; so that it guarantees the user’s feedback concerning the process and product at 4th stage using square weft pieces and the original prototype of the toy-flooring.
Studies show that girls are more inclined to use this toy than boys, particularly at such stages as designing and converting the pattern into cartoon while boys like to put the pieces together and make flooring based on their desired pattern. Researchers have concluded that toys have direct effect on children’s future career. This toy-flooring too may have positive impact on children’s unconscious mind and guide them toward their future job whether as an art or as a profession.
The information presented in this study such as the abundance of carpet colors, common dimensions and sizes, children’s desired patterns, etc. in terms of reliability, may help handmade carpet producers to identify the tastes and attitudes of this age group. Further studies are suggested to perform more comprehensive investigations on this subject and reproduce information presented in this study using different tastes and generations.
The flooring design and final product as an invention is under investigation by judges in Iran. The invention described in this study differs from the prototype described in the dissertation numbered 140050140003004290 which is cubic in shape and fluffy in texture but having similar application. We have tried to present a simpler, cheaper and more accessible product in this article compared to the prototype described in the dissertation.
We hope to present this product in digitalized format using available technologies and web-based platforms in carpet production particularly design, cartoon development and T-shaped pieces sale stages, so that it accessibility for children would be facilitated and they would easily develop their own design and pattern through combining T-shaped weft pieces at various colors and designs.
The present study is not subject to any conflict of interests with any person and organization except traditional carpet community that shows no inclination for innovation in this field.
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