نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دکترای پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه الزهرا س، تهران، ایران.(نویسنده مسئول)
2 استاد گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه الزهرا س، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Iran, with its rich mineral resources, natural attractions, wonderful artistic artefacts, and diverse cultures and thoughts has influenced the art and civilization in different historical periods and has always had a significant position in the world. On one hand, these natural resources, and Iran's ancient history and civilization on the other hand, have the context of producing-economic activities, the cause of social richness and cultural diversity in all periods. On the other hand, the connection between art and life has always been important throughout human history; Iran is no exception to this rule and is world famous for its various and brilliant arts. For more than two thousand years, the old and new civilized world has praised the Iranian talent for beauty.
In addition, Iranian art is based on decoration; In other words, the life history of different human societies in Iran and in the world in general cannot be separated from the history of its ornaments. The main purpose of this article is to present a good view of the evolution of jewelry in ancient Iran from the beginning of the Achaemenid era to the end of the Parthian era. Firstly, we study the different artistic and practical aspects of some of the valuable works discovered from the Achaemenid and Parthian periods, and then we discuss the similarities and differences in them using thematic adaptation and used forms. At the end, we talk about precious and practical stones in their art. The method used for data collection was library method. The research method is descriptive-analytical. The analysis of the data is done qualitatively. The findings indicated the similarities and differences of forms and role of the discovered valuable things, in particular the arrays and ornaments, which were so important in representing the influence of Iranian beliefs, myths and thoughts in different periods on each other and on other countries.
Although the remaining works of these periods have significant differences in terms of diversity and effect, due to technical skills, the balance among attractiveness and artistic taste, effects of colors, combination of paintings, artistic methods has been achieved. High understanding of Iranian artists in all eras indicates the rich culture of Iranian and their lovely artistic taste, especially decorative arts and jewelry making. Also, by comparing the objects left from the studied periods, ie Achaemenid and Parthian, according to their political and cultural situation, as well as the time sequence of these periods, we find similarities and differences, including the impact Culture and art are each according to their cultural structure. In the Achaemenid period, due to the richness of the state treasury and also the great attention to the kings and the glory of the court, their art is a reflection of their political principles and aristocratic moral concepts; However, in this age, many artists have created works of art with creative ideas from different lands; However, due to the orders of the kings and the lack of freedom of action in the work of art, they used a special method and style in creating works that can be called court style. Of course, in the flourishing of decorative art, the innumerable wealth of the Achaemenids played a major role that other sections of society were deprived of. This issue is evident in the Parthian government due to the influence of Greek culture and the spread of wealth among different segments of the population in the form of more use of ornaments and decorative elements in the relics and their sculptures and coins and the people's interest in decoration and Its adornment in this period is its manifestation.
The end result is that the influence of beliefs, myths and beliefs on jewelry reached its peak in the Achaemenid period; And after this period, in the Parthian period and after that, the forms and motifs of ornaments underwent changes in order to simplify and merely decorate these objects, which can be easily seen in a comparative comparison between Achaemenid and Parthian ornaments.