عنوان مقاله [English]
The Qajar period is one of the brightest periods of the art of pen and ink painting. In the Qajar era, we are witnessing the flourishing of calligraphy, and many artists began to make and decorate pens. With the construction of Qalmadan, a suitable platform was provided for the illustration of artists. The designs used on the pens, like other arts in the Qajar period, were influenced by European art. Painting became popular due to the rise of courtiers, statesmen, men, and the rich. The art of calligraphy in the 13th century AH. It reached its peak. Agha Najafali Naghashbashi, one of the leading painters of calligraphy and calligraphy, has been very effective in the flourishing of this art. He is one of the most important artists of calligraphy and calligraphy painting in the Qajar period. One of the motifs used in his works.
The aim of this research is to study the role of dogs and their impact on European painting and the actual breed of dogs in Agha Najafali's painting. This study is an analysis with a historical approach. The main question of this research includes the following cases of how the role of dogs in the works of Agha Najafali has been worked on? To what extent is it influenced by European art? To what extent has realism and nature been addressed? The present research method is qualitative and analytical-descriptive. The method of collecting information is documentary (library). In this study, it is assumed that Agha Najafali is influenced by European painting, and he has tried to portray the realistic role of dogs. The necessity of this research is that in the researches that have been done so far, the role of dogs and its influence on European painting in the art of painting and especially the works of Agha Najafali has not been studied. The statistical population of this study is the study of five works of painted pencils on the subject of dogs. In the second half of Qajar, it reaches its peak of prosperity. Painting and engraving in the Qajar period, due to the general popularity, attracts great masters. The European travels of the kings of Qajar and his connection with Europe make the courtiers and nobles more familiar with the manifestations of life and luxury in the West. Therefore, decorative items and equipment are in greater demand. Pencils, mirrors, mirror frames, jewelry boxes, forks and seals for rich men and women bring prosperity to related jobs. Many artists are engaged in making and preparing such objects, and the ground is laid for illustrating the faces. Due to the court's support for artists in the late Qajar period, artists turned to small family workshops. Lucky pens and objects grew significantly because they were made of more common materials. Artists had worked a lot in the field of pen painting and lacquer painting before the Qajar period, but it is in the second half of the Qajar period that this art reaches its peak. Lacquer painting and calligraphy in the Qajar period attracted great masters due to their popularity. Many artists made and made such objects. Agha Najafali is also one of the most prolific artists of his time. He is one of the creators of great and influential changes in lacquer painting and pen painting. In fact, he brought the methods of the Karim Khan and Nasserite eras closer together. The royal court called him"Naghashbashi" and, according to evidence, he was associated with the royal court. Agha Najaf used the style of Isfahani masters and the style of European painters living in Isfahan equally. Agha Najafali had a precise and excellent style in working and polishing Lucky works. An examination of Agha Najafali's works shows that he was mainly engaged in carrying out the orders of the authorities in Isfahan. Agha Najafali's personal and prolific methods introduce him as an influential artist and stylist.
In this article, the art of calligraphy in the Qajar period is examined and the role of dogs in the works of Agha Najafali is discussed. Five pens from Agha Najafali's pens, in which the role of the dog is illustrated, are examined. At the end of the study, it was concluded that a variety of hunting dogs, guards, herds and ornaments were painted in the pictures of the pen in question. The motifs used for dogs in pen drawings are influenced by European paintings and are based on the study of the actual breeds of dogs.