نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
مربی گروه انیمیشن، دانشکده سینما، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
In many animations and live action movies there are some shots in which either a considerable part of the physical space of the frame is allocated to the hand of the character alone, or hand has a significant role in driving the emotions in the shot. It may seem to the amateur audience that these scenes are included randomly or just to add diversity to the film, but the truth is that almost these shots are intentionally and with a certain purpose placed among others. This means that the director has preferred to tell part of the story of the film, the relationships between the characters, the emotions and feelings between them, or the conditions of the scene simply by showing the hands of the characters to the audience. For example, a close-up of a hand holding a blood-soaked knife and shaking rapidly, or a glass that falls involuntarily to the ground may help convey a sense of the scene far more than showing the character's face or showing what has happened before. The anatomy of the human hand is such that it can take on a variety of different gestures and shapes, and if we add the movements of the hand or the objects to these which can be placed in it, the result would be countless. Each of these states and movements can be a sign that sparks a concept in the mind of the audience. This induction of concepts by decoding hand gestures can have a much more profound effect than directly telling or showing some of the events of the story. The application of such shots adds depth to the narrative and causes the audience to subconsciously visualize and construct some parts of the story in their mind instead of just watching it. This study will address the semiotic functions of hand in animation shots; in order to determine the possibilities provided by these functions for storytelling. In the other words, what signs do hand postures and movements create? And then how these signs affect the audience to form the story in their mind. The main question of this article is: By relying on narrative theories and principles of semiotics, and along with these two by observing and analyzing specific shots of animation movies, is that possible to achieve practical models in which the use of character’s hand in the shot, help the narration of story? Although taste, talent and innovation are key elements in achieving a pure artwork, but the study and even the proper use of patterns and stereotypes can be very effective in achieving this goal. Moreover, without knowing the patterns and stereotypes, it is not possible to break them and go beyond their boundaries. The present research first, using the available sources and the library study method, provides a suitable definition of the narrative and explains its components and elements. It then briefly introduces the sign and its types and examines the position of the hand as each of the types of signs. Finally, the function of the hand is examined as a sign in the narrative, and based on these definitions and using a descriptive-analytical method, this article studies certain shots of some animations as case studies. By examining these shots, different narrative functions of the hand are extracted from them. Because the reader may not have seen the animations mentioned in this article or may not remember the shots mentioned, by reviewing these shots, images of each are accompanied by text to make it easier to understand the concepts mentioned. The main approach of this research is narrative semiotics from Bordwell's perspective. The results obtained as hand functions are: 1) hand, a sign of power; 2) hand, a sign of weakness; 3) hand, sign of ownership; 4) hands, communication tools, cognition and intimacy; 5) hands, tools for emphasizing speech and facial expressions; 6) hand, representative of the inner desire; 7) hand, as means of transmitting a message.