نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 مربی گروه نقاشی، دانشکده معماری، شهرسازی و هنر، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه ایران.
2 مربی گروه نقاشی، دانشکده معماری، شهرسازی و هنر، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه ایران، نویسنده مسئول
عنوان مقاله [English]
Long after the Mongols ruled the Anatolian region, the influence of the Seljuks and their art remained strong. In fact, the architecture of the Ilkhanids is a continuation of the Seljuk architecture. The construction of schools was attended by the governors and people of Anatolia and the tradition continued at the time of the Ilkhanids to follow the Seljuk period, indicating that school building played a special role in this area as a sacred space for education. Attention to education led to the glorious appearance of schools’ entrances in this period.
One of the most significant schools in Anatolia is the Yakutiye School in the city of Erzurum which was built in 1310 AD during the reign of Sultan Al-Jaito. The most important motifs used on the entrance of this school are the relief of the tree of life along with the double-headed eagle and two symmetrical lions on the sides of the tree of life. These decorations are magnificently displayed on the entrances of other schools and some religious buildings in the Anatolian region and show the religious beliefs of the Seljuk period. These concepts vary according to the cultural, social, indigenous structure and beliefs of each region and have a special place in each civilization.
The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the tree of life motif, as well as the double-headed eagle and the lion, which are seen as two inseparable elements next to the tree of life. The present research tries to explain the significant status of the mentioned motifs, to identify and introduce one of the lesser known buildings of the Ilkhanid period and the most important decorations used in it. Since one of the most important features of Seljuk-Ilkhanid architecture in Anatolia is the use of decorative elements in architecture and especially entrance decorations, studying these motifs can provide a new opportunity to know the art of this period and its relation with cultural, social, religious and political issues.
The present article has been done by descriptive-analytical method as well as by desk study of library resources, case study and field observation methodology. The main research questions are: What are the implications of these motifs? Are these motifs related to the function of the building? Which beliefs and rituals can be influenced by the use of these decorative elements?
Considering that shamanism is known as the former religion of the Anatolian Turks, the existence of the tree of life motifs, the double-headed eagle and two predators in this region has also been influenced by this belief and religion and it has penetrated and influenced the cultures and beliefs of other regions.
The beliefs of Shamanism and its effects gained more power and spread with the Mongol invasion. Meanwhile, the effects of Seljuk art on the front of Ilkhanid monuments are also significant. During the Ilkhanid period, the influences of Seljuk art continued with power, so that this building can be studied in the Anatolian Seljuk architectural category.
The results indicate that the decorations used in the entrance of this school were formed under the influence of the Shamanism beliefs and, subsequently, the artistic traditions of the Seljuks. According to researches, the tree of life has been considered in the beliefs of Shamanism as the pillar of the sky or the axis of the universe that connects earth and sky and is a means to reach the dome of the sky, meet the gods, and talk to them. In some cases, there are fruits on the branches of the tree of life that have been used as a symbol of blessing and immortality. The eagle, which is one of the common motifs of ancient civilizations, in this relief is located on the highest part of the composition, emphasizing the concept of sovereignty. In the ritual of shamans, the eagle is the leader of all birds and is considered a sacred animal. The double-headed eagle, with these characteristics, is a symbol of sovereignty, power and the royal emblem. The motive of two predatory animals (lions) around the tree of life is also a sign of the source of energy in life, guardian and protector. In general, the roots of the tree of life motive, in the concept of world and blessing, in the art of this period are reflected in the influence of Central Asian beliefs. According to the concepts used in these motifs, it is concluded that these elements are perfectly proportional to the function of the school building and are compatible as a sacred place in the field of education.