بررسی منسوجات پرزدار شمال اروپا در قرون وسطی از نظر تاریخی و تکنیکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مربی گروه طراحی پارچه و لباس، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران.

10.22051/jjh.2019.27143.1425

چکیده

منسوجات به عنوان یکی از نیازهای اساسی بشر و یکی از اختراعات پرکاربرد او، در طول تاریخ به شکل‌های مختلفی ارائه شده‌اند که در سه بخش تاریخی، تکنیکی و شیمیایی قابل مطالعه و بررسی هستند. از ابتدای اختراع دوک نخ‌ریسی در دنیای باستان تا قرن حاضر، علاوه بر نحوه و کیفیت بافت و نوع مواد مورد استفاده، فرهنگ و جغرافیای هر منطقه عواملی تاثیرگذار در چگونگی شکل‌گیری انواع مختلف پارچه هستند. از این روی، می‌توان این‌گونه نتیجه گرفت که انواع خاصی از منسوجات در دنیا، معرف و مولفه‌ منطقه خاص جغرافیایی متعلق به آن هستند که در مناطق دیگر، شناخته نشده و مورد استفاده قرار نمی‌گیرند. در پژوهش حاضر، سعی شده است تا با استفاده از روش تحقیق کتاب‌خانه‌ای و مطالعه اسناد مربوطه، دو نوع مختلف از شنل‌های پرزدار مورد استفاده در قرون وسطی در کشورهای شمالی قاره‌ اروپا، با نام‌های رایا و شاگی -که تاکنون کم‌تر در کانون توجه محققین قرار گرفته بوده‌اند- معرفی و تشریح گردند. پژوهش حاضر، به دنبال پاسخ‌گویی به این پرسش‌هاست: مبدا تاریخی و کاربرد این منسوجات خاص چیست؟ روش بافت شنل پرزدار شاگی چگونه است؟ و چرا این شنل دارای ارزش بیش‌تری از نظر دینی است؟ جامعه‌ آماری این مقاله،‌ برخی از معروف‌ترین شنل‌های پرزدار به جای مانده در کلیساها و موزه‌های مختلف جهان است که آن‌ها را با نمایش شنل‌های پرزدار در شش اثر مهم هنری قرون وسطی و رنسانس تطبیق داده است. پژوهش پیش‌رو، این دستاوردهای مهم تاریخ پارچه را در دو بخش مطالعات تاریخی و تکنیکی، مورد بررسی قرار داده و در نهایت، به تشریح بازسازی یکی از انواع گوناگون این منسوجات پرداخته است؛ تا از این طریق، بتواند علاوه بر جامع بودن مطالعات، افق‌های جدیدی برای پژوهشگران رشته‌های ذی‌ربط ایجاد کند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، به رابطه‌ مستقیم تولید شنل‌های پرزدار و تعالیم دینی اشاره دارد.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Historical and technical studies of the fluffy Nordic textile from medieval era

نویسنده [English]

  • A. Abdolsalami
Master of Textile Design, Department of Textile Design, Faculty of Art, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
Textiles are presented in various ways as one of the basic human needs and also one of his most important and most applicable inventions which can be studied in three parts: historical, technical and chemical. From the beginning of the spinning invention in the ancient world to the present century, in addition to the techniques, texture and quality of used materials, the culture and geography of each region are influential factors in how different types of fabric are formed and designed. Hence, it is an obvious fact that certain types of textiles in the world are presented by the particular geographic region that are not known and used in other regions. During Medieval era everything in Western societies such as culture, art, economics, etc. was given to the Christian religion and the church. In museums around the world can find a variety of artifacts, including medieval surviving fabrics that have appeared in a purely religious approach to symbolism. In most cases, the difference between fabrics has been manifested in the field of symbolism; but in Northern Europe, the difference between fabrics is not merely symbols and techniques; but because of their particular geographical location and cold weather, historically, people in these areas have provided the world with certain fabrics whose main purpose was to protect the body from the cold, and is still used by the inhabitants of this areas today. In this study, it is assumed that these textiles were used only to protect the body against cold and that it is of great value because of its use in religious doctrines. In the present study, we have tried to use library research method and related documents to introduce and describe various types of pile cloak used in medieval in the northern European countries, which have not been the focus of attention for textile researchers so far. This paper seeks to answer these questions: What is the historical origin and application of these particular textiles? How is the weaving method of shaggy fluffy cloak? And why is it more religiously valuable? The statistical population of this study is the most famous woolen shawls left in various churches and museums around the world, matching them with shown fluffy cloak in six major artworks from the Medieval Era and the Renaissance. For the first time between 1950 and 1980 many researchers and archaeologists like Henshall, Guðjónsson and Schlabow studied textiles discovered in northern Europe from the middle Ages, including the Netherlands, Iceland, and Scotland, and referred to fluffy textiles.
Historical studies have confirmed the presence of these textiles from the tenth and eleventh centuries. Fluffy fabrics have different types, but they consist of two general groups: the first group is textiles on which the lint is sewn on them and the lint and fabric are separated. In the second group, lint is part of the fabric texture, the most important of which is the Shaggy. All of the medieval Shogi textiles, except the two which mentioned in this article, have been lost throughout history, and today there are only a handful of books and archives left. In this study, we identified and cited 7 examples cited in various sources. The leading essay examines these important achievements of fabric history in two sections of historical and technical studies, and finally outlines the reconstruction of one of a variety of these textiles in order to create new horizons for researchers in related fields. These textile in Medieval and Renaissance art, as the famous Saint of John the Baptist, has been exhibited many times in sculptures and paintings. This fluffy cloak is a special outfit of this saint and somehow represents him in the field of semiotics. The results of this study indicate a direct relationship between the production of fluffy cloak and religious teachings.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Northern Europe
  • Textiles
  • cloak
  • fluffy
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URL3:https://wiki.aineetonkulttuuriperinto.fi/wiki/The_rya_tradition_in_Vesilahti (Access date: 02.4.2019)