نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران.
2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران.
3 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران، نویسنده مسئول.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Prior to iron, wood has been one of the most utilized materials in traditional Iranian architecture. Wood has always played a significant role in the structures and decorations of buildings in the Safavid and Qajar period. Wood has been used in many ways in accordance with the ecological, cultural, economic, political and climatic conditions of the area in which it is located. This material has been very influential in the formation of the monuments of the village of Kop (located 45 km from the county of Noor) thanks to its massive forests. Using a variety of decorative techniques, the beautiful and prolific wooden works of art are used on the ceiling, beams and columns, doors and windows, wooden fences and motifs. We can see some of these decorations at Mansouri and Maghsoudi houses. However, the cultural heritage officials have neglected to support such buildings, despite being aware of the existence and valuable potential of the monuments of this village with a period of more than one and a half years old. Natural factors, the passage of time, and the change in the lifestyle of the owners, have also affected the structure of old houses and led to the destruction of old houses and the construction of new ones. The appearance of new houses is not in line with the appearance and architecture of the village, and it lacks any artistic taste and specific environmental, regional and organic features. The construction of new houses has brought about the destruction of these valuable buildings. Therefore, in order to inform art lovers, researchers and high-rank officials of the existence of such a village in the region and its preservation and the necessity of carrying out more extensive studies and research on these monuments, it is necessary to carry out this research. So, we have to ask the following questions: 1. What are the wooden decorations, designs and paintings on the wood in the houses of the village of Kop? Do these decorations fit in different buildings in the same village or with decorations of Safavid and Qajar era buildings in central and northern parts of Iran? What are the similarities?
This is an analytical-historical research. Considering the importance of the topic, the method of data collection is based on field and library studies. Therefore, by conducting field studies, the authors sought to collect raw data and standard documentation including: visual, written, audio and oral history of the two historic houses studied and the historical monuments of the Qajar and Safavid periods of central and northern parts of Iran (provinces: Mazandaran, Gorgan, East Azarbaijan, Tehran and Isfahan). The studied monuments include Moezzadin Mosque, Aqajan Nasab Qajari House, Haj Mehdi Sultan's House, Sardar Jalili House, Afghannejad House, Ameri Mansion, Saheb-Qaraniyeh Palace. The results of the survey of these buildings have shown that there are similarities and conformances in wooden decorations, designs and geometric patterns used in the structural and non-structural parts of the interior and exterior spaces of the two buildings and mentioned structures. These similarities include the pattern of roof beam framing and the planks between it, the designs drawn on them, Lionhead sculpture under the ceiling especially in the four corners below the ceiling in the middle rooms and Shahneshins of the second floors, the designs on the windows and doors, as well as the Orosis used in the Shahneshins and other interior spaces of the building. In outer spaces, this correspondence was found in the way of roof beam framing and the planks between them, the designs and motifs used in the ending parts of the wooden beams below the roof of the gable all around the building, and under the ceiling of the terraces of the second floors. In addition, the design of the capitals on the porch and the wooden fences used in the terraces of the two buildings also corresponded exactly. The architects, carpenters and builders of the two monuments in question did not invent the similarity and conformity of the aforementioned decorations, but they have copied the style of the decorations of the building of the Safavid and Qajar periods on their journeys, and represented them in the two monuments. Therefore, since the combination of this type of artistic and decorative style with architecture has had a continuity and stability from the Safavid to Qajar period, it has been able to establish a strong bridge between art and architecture of the present and future, add the value and historical significance to the two studied modules of this research.