عنوان مقاله [English]
From ancient times and over thousands of years, mud bricks and walls have been subject to erosion and destruction. Now, from the remnants of large cities that have been inhabited for centuries, there is nothing left just the soil. These archology arches or hills are remnants of ruined buildings that have historically been built on ancient artifacts. Human have been made immortalized their desires, beliefs and ideas in the form of carving, stone-carving, sculpture, stone writing, memorial pillars, etc. from long times ago. Creating reliefs is one of the traditions that rulers of the time have used to immortalize their ideas. The emperors of the two ancient civilizations of ancient Assyria and Rome expected their high status in their favorite works, such as war and hunting, to be specified and recorded in precise and inaccurate terms, and to intensify the same feeling of wondering in newcomers. In fact, the reliefs are the leaves of the illustrated history, culture and art book, which have many ideas inside. Until today, all their concepts have not been properly understood. They are valuable historical monuments that not only provide researchers with valuable information on the art styles of the time, but also provide valuable data in research and studies. Many ways of expression, techniques and views of art that are influenced by the social, economic, cultural and religious conditions of their time in each era can be understood and blended with the personal and national taste of the artist. Overall, the purpose of this research was to emphasize the visual values of the two reliefs of the battle of the Tal Taba and the pillar of Trajan, the similarities, differences, quality of the drawing and decorations and to coordinate them with the reliefs and the impact of historical viewpoints on the quality of the works. In this historical-analytical research using library method, information has been collected by historical-documentary method. Also, using the available texts and authoritative sources on the two reliefs, the works are categorized and analyzed based on a comparative approach. One of the central questions of this paper is, can a comparative approach and an in-depth look at the content and artistic essence of these two reliefs succeed in understanding the relationship between narrative concepts and the historical reality of the time, albeit on a limited scale? Secondly, how has historicism, along with realism, been the ornament of the two reliefs of the battle of Tal Taba and the Trajan pillar? And lastly, what is the difference between the way Assyrians and Greeks look at the real scenes and the conflict of the war in the reliefs of the Battle of Tal Taba and the Trajan Column, due to their experiences and abilities? The findings of the study indicate that, in the delicate reliefs of the Trajan memorial column, a completely different approach is used, and we see another type of realism, not transparent visual realism, but rather an anatomical documentary realism that prefers the conceptual truth to the obvious truth. The conceptual approach in these reliefs allows the artist to present complex scenes with some subtlety. The Romans' passion for real-life narratives is also more akin to that of the Assyrians than to the Greeks. And the most important feature of a relief in which the whole is formed on this basis is the existence of powerful centers, which is the main pillar. This feature is well visible in the Assyrian reliefs and the Trajan column. These reliefs are of particular importance because they predict the end of one period and the beginning of the next. Finally, it can be concluded that all the measures that the Assyrians have applied in their narrative reliefs, the Romans have applied the same principles and measures again in centuries to their reliefs.