نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه نقاشی، دانشگاه الزهرا(س)، تهران، ایران، نویسنده مسئول
2 کارشناس ارشد ارتباط تصویری دانشگاه آزاد واحد تهران مرکز، تهران، ایران .
عنوان مقاله [English]
Architecture and decorations of buildings were among the most important arts during the Safavid Era. The buildings constructed in the Safavid Period in Iran are probably the most enticing and attractive constructions throughout Iranian architecture. Artists and architects of Safavid Period have left a great deal of exuberance, all of which were executed on the orders of King Shah Abbas І, who was an art lover ruler. A collection of impressive architectures, including the Palace of Chehel Sotoun, Hasht Behesht, Haft Dast, Mirror Hall, Namakdan, Ashraf Hall, etc. were all constructed in this magnificent period. The courtiers' palaces often have a long life history, enduring many changes and events. What is noticeable in Persian Architecture, especially during the Safavid Period, is that building construction and architecture has been just as valuable and important as the techniques used to decorate and arrange the interior of the buildings. The Ali Qapu Palace is one of the palaces that have undergone many changes during decades and it was expanded during Shah Abbas I kingdom and was officially used for formal occasions and gatherings. The Ali Qapu Palace is located in the west of Isfahan’s Naghsh-e-Jahan Square, with its impressive decorations and stucco that reaches its peak in the sixth floor. Stucco is one of the most important attributes of the architecture especially within the Safavid Period, and when flourished, the cutout style of design was invented. One of the finest and most captivating examples of the cutout style in this period can be found on the sixth floor of the Ali Qapu Palace (Music Room). This type of stucco is in the form of bowls like stoup, basin and ewer. These decorations have been innovatively incorporated into the ceiling of the room, which mesmerizes every visitor. The whole room is covered with cutout style decorations with the surface being painted with artistic vegetal and animal figures by the most famous painter and artist of that era, Reza Abbasi. This is an inventive method of the Safavid Period and there is no sign of such artwork before Safavid Period. In this research, after reviewing the Safavid Period architecture and its elements, the decoration of the sixth floor of the Ali Qapu Palace, the method of making these tangibles and also the main reason for their presence in the walls of Music Room will be studied. The main questions of this research are as follows: What was the main reason for the construction of these plasterworks in the walls and ceiling of the music room? What kind of features and designs do these stuccos have? The type of research carried out here is historical-analytical, and the presented content has been collected from documents and literature found in libraries. In this research, stucco mosaics are analyzed linearly with Corel Software and all motifs and materials as well as the location of stucco moldings has been introduced through a table for better understanding of the readers. The main focus of the paper is the introduction of stucco molding and investigation of the cause of their existence in the music room. According to this research, we find that the upper levels of the walls are divided and in each division the design and the role of the hollow are drawn, and then the action of the cutout Muqarnas is done with the plaster and wood. Artists in the Music Room have invented these techniques and shapes such as stoup, basin and ewer to satisfy Shah Abbas I's demands. Perhaps the main reason for making these stucco moldings on the wall and the ceiling of the music room is that the reflection from the sounds are taken away by these forms, and natural sounds are heard without reflection like the "Echo Drum" which transmits vocal vibrations without alteration. It seems that the main purpose of this order by the king was to preserve the secretive words of the king and not to distribute the music of musicians in other places like what acoustics do today. Also, surveys show that the intervals between these plasterworks are covered with wall paintings inspired by the nature of the pattern, taking into account the suitability and beauty, and creating flower and plant designs, arabesques, cuthay, foliage and shapes, wild animals and birds by using, okr, gold, turquoise and green colors around the cutouts and backgrounds, developed by the artist, Reza Abbasi, created a masterpiece to satisfy not only the Shah, but also to remain a remarkable and amazing work in Iranian History.