رویکرد‌های جدید در طراحی منسوجات: دانش زیست‌الگو، فرصت‌ها و زمینه‌های کاربرد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

چکیده

طبیعت ذاتاً زیبا و بی‌نقص است و به‌طور قطع منبع الهام بسیار خوبی برای هنرمندان و طراحان می‌باشد. اساساً طراحی به معنای آفرینش فکر و ایده‌های جدید و تبدیل آن‌ها به یک پدیده فیزیکی و یا غیر‌مادی است. در وادی طراحی، آنچه طی سالیان متمادی از اصطلاح «الهام از طبیعت» برداشت می‌شد صرفاً به بخش هنری و زیبایی‌شناسانه آن اشاره داشت، حال آنکه هدف دانش «زیست‌الگو» توجه به هر دو جنبه کاربردی و زیبایی‌شناختی سیستم‌های طبیعی است. دانش زیست‌الگو مبلّغ و حامی‌ نوعی نگاهِ مفهومی‌، مطلع و قدردان از سو‌ی طراحان، تولیدکنندگان و سیاست‌گذاران جوامع امروزیست تا از طبیعت چاره‌اندیشی‌ بیاموزند. این پژوهش سعی دارد با نشان دادن نمونه‌هایی از همراهی این دو بخش در فصل مشترک زیست‌شناسی و طراحی منسوجات و همچنین شناسایی راهکار‌های جدیدی از طراحی، گامی در جهت روشن‌تر شدن آینده این دانش بردارد. قطع به یقین دانش زیست‌الگو و تعاملات صحیح میان طراحان منسوجات و متخصصان علوم زیستی، ساختارهایی پایدارتر و سازگارتر با طبیعت را جهت آینده منسوجات بشر پیشنهاد می‌دهد. شیوه تحقیق در این پژوهش از نوع مطالعات نظری، بنیادی و مبتنی بر بررسی تجارب و استخراج اصول طراحی منسوجات به شیوه زیست‌الگو است و آنچه در اینجا مطرح می‌شود براساس تحقیقات و گردآوری‌های کتابخانه‌ای است و نمونه‌هایی از خلاقیت‌ها و تجارب متخصصان این حیطه را شامل می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

New aspects of future textile design: Biomimicry, opportunities and fields of application

چکیده [English]

Humankind has found that the only way to save his life is to maintain and protect our own land and the environment. He now understands that the best way to achieve this important is to model nature and its mechanisms. Making and applying ideas based on successful experiences of nature led him to publicize the knowledge named “Biomimicry”. For hundreds of years, each organism and sustainable patterns in this mature ecosystem, obey strategic rules, in order to work as a unit to continue living. As a human, these sort of engineered rules are valued to observe, emulate and implement. Mysteries of nature are considered a valuable and infinite resource for making ideas and methods to solve problems. Biomimicry advocates innovators and problem solvers of all kinds, to create more intelligent and sustainable design through the conceptual view and/or emulation of nature. Biomimicry is the biologic and naturalistic way of confronting challenges, intelligent research to find inspiration from nature and then evaluate it to ensure that the final outcomes is followed nature in the entire process - form and composition, processing and ecosystems. Understanding the unique potential of textiles as a versatile material, bring a wide range of ideas and perspectives in the world of modern design, to come around the fabric area. As a result, the designs and ideas taken from biomimicry caused a great revolution in the field of textile design and textile engineering capabilities. The science of biomimicry was famed and solidified by “Janine Benyus” in 1997, with her book ‘Biomimicry: innovation inspired by design’. She believes that to achieve biomimicry perception we have to look at nature as a model, measure and mentor. Obviously, there are some rules and orders to apply biomimicry in the design process so we hope that implementation of these design rules make some profound advantages for planet Earth and our quality of life. Biomimicry does not assume nature as a resource of staple materials but knows it as an instructor to learn its methods in performing materials and its constructions. This research is trying to explore the intersection of biology and textile design, and also clarify new strategies of designing textiles to a brighter future of this art. In fact, biomimicry and the proper relationships between biological/environmental experts and textile designers, offers more sustainable and compatible future textiles. Ideas of making products, buildings and functions which inspired by nature, constitute a major part of today's design. Engineers are focusing on physical and mechanical principles and designers are emphasize on aesthetic rules influenced by biomimicry, moving to achieve the common goal of developing ideas and solutions based on the natural models. Endless expanse and charming of ideas from biomimicry and the intersection with the new field of synthetic biology, invites textile designers and engineers to investigate living organisms as innovative crafting materials. A few of these efforts have been covered in this review, and a wide field of these scientific discoveries remains wide open continuously. Not only biomimicry can help to solve the structural human challenges but also promising new horizons in psychological, cultural, and philosophical models as well.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomimicry
  • Nature
  • Textile Design
  • New Technologies